Retail internationalization; global retailing; internationalization failure; global mindset


Due to saturated domestic markets many retailers seek potential growth and profits in the global market. After reviewing internationalization failures of big three global retailers, Wal-Mart, Carrefour, and Tesco, three important factors emerged which other retailers should consider as they plan strategies for internationalization and expansion. They are (1) adapting to host culture and market; (2) attaining competitive advantages in the new market; and (3) achieving global mindset and strategy. Findings of this paper can help retailers implement their internationalization strategies for the success in the global market.

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