Employee’s Engagement, career opportunities, recognition of efforts, job satisfaction, fun at work, structural equation modelling


          Institutions of higher learning in the modern and highly competitive academic environment compete to drive work engagement and explore possible means by which employees can develop and exhibit right attitudes and disposition to work. The main objective of this study was to examine the effect of work engagement strategies on employees’ behavioural outcomes. Few studies analysed how work engagement strategies could help in driving standard work behaviour particularly in higher institutions. In an attempt to bridge this gap, this study was carried out using descriptive research method and Structural Equation Model (AMOS 22) for the analysis of four hundred and forty-one (441) valid questionnaire which were completed by the faculty members of the six selected private universities in Nigeria using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Factor model which shows high-reliability and good fit was generated, while construct validity was provided through convergent and discriminant analyses. The findings indicate that career opportunities, recognition of efforts, institution’s reputation, investment in employees and fun at work have positive influence on job satisfaction, job involvement and employees’ loyalty. This study contributes to the scientific knowledge in the area of Strategic Human Resources Management and the insight discovered from the study would help the management of institutions of higher learning to improve their employees’ level of engagement as well as their behavioural outcomes. 

Full Text : PDF

  1. Anitha, J. (2014) Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management. 63(3) 308-323.
  2. Armstrong, M. (2006) A handbook of human resource management practice (7thed.) London: Kogan Page.
  3. Attridge, M. (2009) Measuring and managing employee work engagement: a review of the research and business literature. Journal of Workplace Behavioral Health. 24(1), 383-398.
  4. AON Hewitt, (2013) Trends in global employee engagement. [online]. Retrieved from: 
  5. Bakker, A.B., Shimazu, E. Demerouti, K.S & Kawakami, N. (2014) Work engagement versus workaholism: A test of the spillover-crossover model. Journal of Managerial Psychology.  29(1), 63-80.
  6. Babb, S. & Meyer, T. (2005) Perspectives on learnerships. Knowledge resources. South Africa: Knowres. 
  7. Banhwa, P.F, Chipunza, C. & Chamisa, S.F. (2014) The influence of organisational employee engagement strategies on organisational. Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (6), 53-62.
  8. Barrick, M. Thurgood, G.R., Smith, T.A & Courtright, S. (2014) Collective organizational engagement: Linking motivational antecedents, strategic implementation, and firm performance. Academy of Management Journal, 58,111–135.
  9. Baumruk, R. (2004) The missing link: the role of employee engagement in business successes. Workspan, 47(5), 48-52.
  10. Bassi, L, & McMurrer, D. (2007) Maximizing Your Return on People. Harvard Business Review, March: 115 – 123.
  11. Blattner, J., & Walter, T.J. (2015) Creating and sustaining a highly engaged company culture in a multigenerational workplace. Strategic HR Review, 14, 124–130. 
  12. Cain, L., Tanford, S. & Shulga, L. (2018) Customers’ Perceptions of Employee Engagement: Fortifying the Service–Profit Chain. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 19(1).
  13. Deci, E.L., & Ryan, R.M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New York, NY: Plenum.
  14. Desai, M., Majumdar, B., & Prabhu, G.P. (2010) A Study on Employee Engagement in Two Indian Businesses. Asian Journal of Management Research, 1(1), 81-96.
  15. Eldor, L., Harpaz, I. (2016) A process model of employee engagement: Learning climate and its relationship with work performance. Journal of Organizational Behaviour, 37(2), 213-235.
  16. Endres, G. & Mancheno-Smoak, L., (2008) The human resource craze: Human performance improvement and employee engagement. Organisation Development Journal, 26 (2), 69-78.
  17. Falola, H.O., Salau, O.P., Olokundun, A.M., Omoniyi-Oyafunke, C.O, Ibidunni, A.O & Oludayo, A.O. (2018). Employees’ intrapreneurial engagement initiatives and its influence on organisational survival. Business: Theory and Practice, 19, 9-16. 
  18. Falola, H. O, Salau, O. P, Omoniyi-Oyafunke, C. O & Olokundun M. A. (2016). Effect of marital instability on employees’ performance in selected commercial banks in Nigeria. International Business Management. 10(21), 5158-5163. 
  19. Falola, H. O., Osibanjo O. A, & Ojo, S.I. (2014) Effectiveness of training and development on employees’ performance and organisation competitiveness in the Nigerian banking industry. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov Series V: Economic Sciences. 7(56).
  20. Fairhurst, D. (2013) Work made fun gets done, sums up the preconditions of an engaged and productive workforce. HR Magazine, MA Business & Leisure. 17.
  21. Frank, F., Finnegan, R. & Taylor, C. (2004) The race for talent: retaining and engaging workers in the 21st century. Human Resource Planning, 27(3), 12 – 26.
  22. Gallup Organisation (2006) [online] Available at:
  23. Gupta, M & Shaheen, M. (2017) The impact of work engagement and turnover intention: Moderation by Psychological capitalin India. Business: Theory and Practice, 18(1), 136–143
  24. Harju L.K, Hakanen, J.J, Schaufeli, W.B. (2016). Can job crafting reduce job boredom and increase work engagement? A three-year cross-lagged panel study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 95:11–20. 
  25. Hakanen, J.J., Schaufeli, W.B., & Ahola, K. (2008) The job demands-resources model: a three-year cross-lagged study of burnout, depression, commitment, and work engagement. Work and Stress, 22(3), 224–241.
  26. Ibidunni, O.S., Osibanjo, A.O., Adeniji, A.A., Salau, O.P. and Falola, H.O. (2016) Talent Retention and Organizational Performance: A Competitive Positioning in Nigerian Banking Sector. Periodica Polytechnica Social and Management Sciences, 24(1), 1-13.
  27. Jamaludin, M.F., Ahmad, A.M., Mohammad, A. & Shobri, N.D.M. (2016) A Study on the relationship between fun at work and work engagement. Proceedings of the ASEAN Entrepreneurship Conference. 
  28. Jena, L.K, Pradhan, S. (2017) Research and recommendations for employee engagement: Revisiting the employee-organization linkage", Development and Learning in Organizations. An International Journal, 31(5), 17-19.
  29. Joo, B.K, Lim, D.H, Kim, S. (2016) Enhancing work engagement: the roles of psychological capital, authentic leadership, and work empowerment. Leadership & Organization Development Journal 37 (8): 1117–1134.
  30. Kanik, G., Ishaq, A.D., Mridula, M. (2018) Job Satisfaction and Work Engagement: A study using private sector bank managers. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 20(1), 58-71.
  31. Little, P., & Little, B. (2006) Employee engagement: conceptual issues. Journal of Organisational Culture, Communications and Conflict, 10(1), 111-120.
  32. Lockwood, N.R (2007). Leveraging employee engagement for competitive advantage: HR's strategic role. HR Magazine. 52(3), 1-11.
  33. Macey, W.H., & Schneider, B. (2008) The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organisational Psychology. 1(1), 330.
  34. Mani, V. (2011) Analysis of employee engagement and its predictors. International Journal of Human Resource Studies. 1(2), 87-95.
  35. Markos. S. & Sridevi, M.S., (2010) Employee engagement: the key to improving performance. International Journal of Business and Management, 5(12), 56-67.
  36. May, D.R., Gilson, R.L. & Harter, L.M. (2004) The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational & Organisational Psychology, 77(13), 11-37.
  37. McBain, R. (2007). The practice of engagement, Strategic HR Review, 6(6), 16-19.
  38. Millar, G., (2012). Employee Engagement: A New Paradigm. Human Resource Management International Digest, 20(2), 103-177.
  39. Mowbray, P. K., Wilkinson, A., & Tse, H. H. M. (2014) An integrative review of employee voice: Identifying a common conceptualization and research agenda. International Journal of Management Reviews, 17, 382–400.
  40. Ogbonnaya, C., Daniels, K., Nielsen, K. (2017). How incentive pay affects employee engagement, satisfaction, and trust. Harvard Business Review. 
  41. Olaniyan, O.S, Hystad, S.W. (2016). Employees’ psychological capital, job satisfaction, insecurity, and intentions to quit: the direct and indirect effects of authentic leadership. Revista de Psicologia del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 32(3), 163–171.
  42. Osborne, S., Hammoud, M.S. (2017). Effective employee engagement in the workplace. International Journal of Applied Management and Technology, 16(1), 50–67.
  43. Osibanjo, A. O. Salau, O. P, Falola, H. O & Oyewunmi, A. E. (2016). Work place stress: Implication for organisational performance in a Nigerian public University. Business: Theory and Practice. 17(3), 261-269.
  44. Organ, D.W., Posdakoff, P.M. & MacKenzie, S.B. (2006) Organisational citizenship behaviour: its nature, antecedents, and consequences, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  45. Olivier, A.L., & Rothmann, S. (2007) Antecedents of work engagement in a multinational oil company. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology, 33(3), 49–56.
  46. Peterson, C., Nansook, P., & Seligman, M.E. (2005) Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6(2), 25–41. 
  47. Richman, A. (2006) Everyone wants an engaged workforce how can you create it? Workspan. 49(4), 36-39. 
  48. Robinson, D., Perryman, S., & Hayday, S. (2004). The drivers of employee engagement, institute for employment studies: University of Brighton. 
  49. Saks, A.M. (2006) Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(6), 600-619.
  50. Schneider, B., Macey, W.H., Barbera, K.M., Martin, N. (2009). Driving customer satisfaction and financial success through employee engagement, People and Strategy, 32(2), 22-27.
  51. Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A Multi-Sample Study. Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 25(5), 293–315.
  52. Seijts, G.H and Crim, D. (2006). What engages employees the most or the ten c’s of employee engagement. Ivey Business Journal, 70(4), 1-5.
  53. Shaw, K. (2005). An engagement strategy process for communicators’, Strategic Communication Management, 9(3), 26-29.
  54. Shuck, M.B., Rose, K. (2013) Reframing employee engagement within the context of meaning and purpose implications for HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 15, 341-355.
  55. Shuck, M.B., Rocco, T.S & Albornoz, C.A. (2011) Exploring Employee Engagement from the Employee Perspective: Implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(4), 300-325.
  56. Shuck, B., & Wollard, K. (2010). Employee Engagement & HRD: A Seminal Review of the Foundations. Human Resource Development Review, 9(1), 89-110.
  57. Soyars, M., Brusino, J. (2009) Essentials of Engagement. Training and Development, 63(3), 62-65.
  58. Strumpfer, D.J.W. (2003) Resilience and Burnout: A Stitch That Could Save Nine. South African Journal of Psychology, 33(4), 69–79. 
  59. Suharti, L. & Suliyanto, D. (2012) The Effects of Organisational Culture and Leadership Style toward Employee Engagement and Their Impacts toward Employee Loyalty. World Review of Business Research, 2(5), 128 – 139.
  60. Stander, M.W., & Rothmann, S. (2010) Psychological Empowerment, Job Insecurity, and Employee Engagement. South African Journal of Industrial Psychology. 36(1), 1–8. 
  61. Wagner, R., & Harter, J.K. (2006) The Great Elements of Managing. The Gallup Organisation, Washington, D.C.
  62. Witemeyer, H.A. (2013) Employee Engagement Construct and Instrument Validation. Georgia State University, Atlanta.
  63. Woodruffe, C. (2006) Employee Engagement: The Real Secret of Winning a Crucial Edge over Your Rivals. British Journal of Administrative Management. 50, 28-29.
  64. Xu, J. & Thomas, H.C. (2011) How Can Leaders Achieve High Employee Engagement? Leadership and Organisation Development Journal. 32(4), 399-416.