Leadership styles, employee motivation, autocratic leadership, democratic, laissez-faire, situational leadership, transformational and charismatic leadership style, automobile industry


Purpose: The effectiveness of leadership is critical at all levels of the organisation. Different organisations use a variety of leadership styles and methods to improve employee performance by inspiring them and providing them with adequate opportunities. The research purpose is to examine the impact of leadership styles on employee’s motivation in the automotive industry in the United Kingdom.

Methodology: The researchers used a deductive approach in conjunction with the quantitative method to determine the study's outcomes. A sample of 100 people was used for primary data using a questionnaire-based survey. Subjects are from the automotive industry, and the survey was carried out online.

Findings: According to the results, Democratic Leadership Style (DLS), Autocratic Leadership Style (ALS), Laissez-faire Leadership Style (LFLS), Situational Leadership Style (SLS), Transformational Leadership Style (TLS), and Charismatic Leadership Style (CLS) are among the six study variables that are highly significant in terms of employee motivation. Autocratic Leadership Style (ALS) and Charismatic Leadership Style (CLS) were determined to be the study's less significant variables (CLS). The findings suggest that there is a positive relationship between leadership styles and employee motivation.

Conclusion and study implications: The findings of this study can be used to develop strategies and achieve goals by developing and implementing a good leadership style. Transformational leadership is important, and leaders and managers should strive to demonstrate it in their daily activities. This study's findings have both academic and commercial implications. Leaders should use suitable styles and an inclusive and equitable incentive scheme to motivate employees by setting expectations.

Full Text : PDF

  • Achua, C.F. and Lussier, R.N., (2013). Effective leadership. South-Western Cengage Learning.
  • Adams, J; Raeside, R and Khan, HA, (2014), Research Methods for Business and social science Students, 2nd and, Sage Publications Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  • Arbnor, I and Bjerke, B 2009, Methodology for creating Business Knowledge, 3rd and. London: sage publications.
  • Badaracco, J. (2002) Leading Quietly – an Unorthodox Guide to Doing the Right Thing. Harvard Business School Press.
  • Bhatti, N. et al., (2012). The Impact of Autocratic and Democratic Leadership Style. International Business Research, 5(2), pp. 192-201.
  • Bleich, E. (2011). What is islamophobia and how much is there? Theorising and measuring an emerging comparative concept. American Behavioral Scientist, 55(12), 1581-1600.
  • Blanchard, O.J (2008). THE STATE OF MACRO. Cambridge: NBER publications.
  • Bolden, R. (2004). What is Leadership? 1st ed. Exeter: University of Exeter. 59
  • Bryman, A. and Bell, E., 2011. Business research methods. Cambridge: Oxford University Press.
  • Burns, A. (2010). Doing Action Research in Language Teaching: A Guide for Practitioners. NY: Routledge.
  • Chaudhury, A. and Javed, H. (2012). Impact of Transactional and Laissez-Faire Leadership Style on Motivation. International Journal of Business and social science, 03(07), pp.259-264.
  • Chi, Lan, and Dorjgotov, (2012). The moderating effect of transformation leadership on knowledge management and organisational effectiveness.
  • Collis, J. and Hussey, R., 2014. Business research: A practical guide for undergraduate and postgraduate students. 4th edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan International Higher Education.
  • Corbin, J and Strauss, 2008, Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory, 3rd ed, SAGE Publications.
  • Creswell, J. (2014). Research Design. 4th ed. London: SAGE Publication.
  • De Cremer, D. (2004). The influence of accuracy as a function of leader's bias: The role of trustworthiness in the psychology of procedural justice. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 293 – 304.
  • Dhaka Tribune. (2018). Experts on banking industry seminar: Lack of efficient leadership caused mounting NPLs, scams, corporate frauds in the banking sector. [online] Available at:
  • Dyczkowska, J. and Dyczkowski, T. (2018). Democratic or Autocratic Leadership Style? Participative Management and its Links to rewarding Strategies and Job Satisfaction in SMEs. Athens Journal of Business and Economics, 04(02), pp.193-2017.
  • Egwunyenga, E.J. (2010). Essentials of school administration. Benin City: Justice- Jeco Publishers.
  • Faeth, M.A., 2004. Power, authority, and influence: A comparative study of the behavioural influence tactics used by lay and ordained leaders in the Episcopal Church (Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Tech).
  • Fiedler, F.E. (1967). A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness. Mc Graw-Hill Book Company, New York.
  • Gosling, J. and Mintzberg, H. (2003) The five minds of a manager. Harvard Business Review, 81, 54-63. 61
  • Gosling, J. and Murphy, A., (2004). Leading continuity. Working Paper: Centre for Leadership Studies, University of Exeter.
  • Grint, K. (2004) what is Leadership? From Hydra to Hybrid. Working paper, Saïd Business School and Templeton College, Oxford University
  • Hammond, J.L., 2019. Gladstone and the Irish nation. Routledge.
  • Haque, M., Haque, M. and Islam, M. (2014). ASA University Review. Motivational Theories – A Critical Analysis, 08(01), pp.62-68.
  • Herzberg, Frederick (1966). Work and the Nature of Man. Cleveland: World Publishing
  • Hinkin, T. and Schriesheim, C. (2008). A theoretical and empirical examination of the transactional and non-leadership dimensions of the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ). The Leadership Quarterly, 19(5), pp.501-513.
  • Igbaekemen, G. O., (2015). Impact of Leadership Style on Organization Performance: A Strategic Literature Review. Public Policy and Administration Research, 4(9), pp. 126-136.
  • Irny, S.I. and Rose, A.A., (2005). Designing a Strategic Information Systems Planning Methodology for Malaysian Institutes of Higher Learning (isp-ipta), Issues in Information System, Volume VI, No. 1.
  • Judge, T.A. and Piccolo, R.F., (2004). Transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Journal of applied psychology, 89(5), p.755.
  • Keup, J., Walker, A., Astin. H. and Lindholm, J. ed., (2001). Organizational Culture and Institutional Transformation. 1st ed. Washington: ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education.
  • Klenke, K; Wallace, JR, and Martin S, (2015), Qualitative Research in the study of leadership, 2nd eds. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  • Latham, G.P., (2007). A speculative perspective on the transfer of behavioural science findings to the workplace: "The times they area-changing'". Academy of Management Journal, 50(5), pp.1027-1032.
  • Lewis, R., Feilder, E. and Godfree, K. (2017). Developing managers to manage sustainable employee engagement, health, and well-being. Developing managers to manage sustainable employee engagement, health and well-being, pp.2-28.
  • Liya G. Mariam (2018). Effect of leadership style on employee's performance at wegagen bank's c.
  • MacGregor Bums, (2003). Transformational leadership is the pursuit of happiness.
  • Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.
  • Markwell, J. (2004). The human side of science education: Using McGregor's theory Y as a framework for improving student motivation. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 32(5), pp.323-325.
  • McGrath, R.G., and MacMillan, I.C. (2000) The entrepreneurial mindset: Strategies for continuously creating opportunity in an age of uncertainty (Vol. 284). Harvard Business Press.
  • Michael. A. (2010). Leadership style and organisational impact.
  • Mullins, A. (2007). Management and Organisational Behavior. 8th Edition. England: Pearson Education Limited.
  • Musinguzi C, Namale L, Rutebemberwa E, Dahal A, Nahirya-Ntege P, Kekitiinwa A (2018) The relationship between leadership style and health worker motivation, job satisfaction and teamwork in Ugand, Journal of Healthcare Leadership, April 2018 Volume,
  • Naile, I. and Selesho, J. (2014). The Role of Leadership in Employee Motivation. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 5 (3), 175- 182.
  • Northouse, PG (2004) Leadership: Theory and Practice (3rd Edition). London: Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Nikezic, S., Puric, S. and Puric, J., (2012). Transactional and transformational leadership: Development through changes. International Journal for Quality Research, 6(3), pp.285-296.
  • Obiruwu A. (2011). Leadership styles and their effect on organisational performance
  • Ojokuku, R., Odetayo, T. and Sajuyigbe, A., (2012). Impact of Leadership Style on Organisational Performance: A Case Study of Nigerian Banks. American Journal of Business Management, 1(4), pp. 202-207.
  • Pellegrini E. K., Scandura T. A. (2008). Paternalistic leadership: a review and agenda for future research. J. Manage. 34 566–593.
  • Sougui, A.O., Bon, A.T., Mahamat, M.A. and Hassan, H.M.H., 2016. The Impact of Leadership on Employee Motivation in Malaysian Telecommunication Sector. Galore International Journal of Applied Sciences and Humanities, 1(1).
  • Qureshi, M., Zaman, K. and Bhatti, M. (2011). The impact of culture and gender on leadership behaviour: Higher education and management perspective. Management Science Letters, 01(04), pp.531-540.
  • Ramlall, S., (2004). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for employee retention within organisations. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5(1/2), pp.52-63.
  • Robbins, S. and Judge, T. (2013). Organisational behaviour. 15th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A., (2009). Research methods for business students. Essex. Financial Times/Prentice Hall. 64
  • Schaffer, B. (2008). Leadership and motivation. Supervision, 69(2), pp.6-9.
  • Sekaran, U., (2003). Research methods for business: A skill Building Approach. 4thedition. John Wiley and Sons: New York.
  • Sekaran, U. and Bougie, R., (2010). Theoretical framework in the theoretical framework and hypothesis development. Research methods for business: A skill-building approach, 80.
  • Shahjalal Islami Bank Limited Annual Report. (2017). 1st ed. Dhaka.
  • Speer, S. and Stroke, E., (2014). Ethics in action: consent-gaming interactions and implications for research practice. The British Journal of social psychology/the British psychological society (online), 53 (1), 54-73.
  • Skogstad, A., Nielsen, M. B., and Einarsen, S. (2017). Destructive forms of leadership and their relationships with employee wellbeing. In E. K. Kelloway, K. Nielsen, and J. K. Dimoff (Eds.), Leading to occupational health and safety: How leadership behaviours impact organisational safety and wellbeing (pp. 163–195). Chichester, UK: Wiley.
  • Speer, S. and Stokoe, E., (2014). Ethics in action: consent-gaining interactions and implications for research practice. The British Journal of Social Psychology / The British Psychological Society [online], 53 (1), 54-73.
  • Sy, T., Horton, C. and Riggio, R. (2018). The Leadership Quarterly. Charismatic leadership: Eliciting and channelling follower emotions, 29(1), pp.58-69.
  • Wang, F.J., Chich-Jen, S. and Mei-Ling, T., (2010). Effect of leadership style on organisational performance as viewed from human resource management strategy. African Journal of Business Management, 4(18), pp.3924-3936.
  • Wilmot, A., (2005). Designing sampling strategies for qualitative social research: with reference to the Office for National Statistics' Qualitative Respondent Register. SURVEY METHODOLOGY BULLETIN-OFFICE FOR NATIONAL STATISTICS-, 56, p.53.
  • Wong, S. and Giessner, S. (2016). The Thin Line Between Empowering and Laissez-Faire Leadership: An Expectancy-Match Perspective. Journal of Management, 44(2), pp.757-783. 66
  • Yin, RK, (2014), Case Study Research – Design and Methods, 5th end, SAGE Publications Ltd, London.
  • Yukl, G. (2001). Leadership in organisations. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hal.
  • Yukl, G. (2014). Leadership in Organisations (7th Suppl.), Noida: Pearson India Education Services Pvt Ltd.
  • Yun, S., Cox, J. and Sims Jr, H. (2006). The forgotten follower is a contingency model of leadership and follower self-leadership. Managerial Psychology, 21(04), pp.374-388.
  • Zenger, John J., and Joseph Folkman (2002). The extraordinary leader: Turning good managers into great leaders. New York, New York: McGraw Hill.