Intrapreneurial orientation, entrepreneurial orientation, corporate entrepreneurship
Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO) can act as a predictor and indicator of firm-level entrepreneurship in organisations of different sizes. Intrapreneurial Orientation (IO), as an offspring of EO, describes an individual employee’s inclination to act entrepreneurially. Yet while the importance of an organisation’s EO cannot be overstated, a lack of clarity exists as to which common constructs underpin these concepts, as no study has attempted to analyse the shared conceptual basis underpinning EO, IO and other connected concepts. The purpose of this study is to analyse the underlying constructs of past EO and IO studies. The study is qualitative in nature by utilising a narrative review methodology. The review was conducted in prominent international databases. Discovered articles were analysed by means of content and thematic analysis. Results reveal that EO studies mostly utilise three constructs, namely risk-taking, innovativeness and proactiveness, while competitive aggressiveness and autonomy are less frequently utilised. Instruments developed by Miller (1983), as well as Covin and Slevin (1989) were the most frequently utilised instruments to assess EO. Studies investigating IO lack commonality in constructs, with only innovativeness representing a common construct. Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation was found to act as an extension to IO, utilising similar constructs and one underlying instrument only. Findings of this study provide researchers and academics with an up-to-date identification and analysis of the main constructs underlying popular EO and IO instruments, thereby assisting in the development of instruments in future EO and IO studies.
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